Instructional Strategies

  • General Strategies

    • Teach the student to preview the material.

    • Teach common text features and story elements.

    • Help the student access prior/background knowledge to facilitate comprehension.

    • Have the student sequence events from a story.

    • After reading, have the student complete a semantic map capturing key information.

    • Give the student cloze materials to practice.

    • Introduce new words and their meanings to the student prior to reading new material.

    • Assess the specific breakdown in comprehension and teach strategies matched to that skill.

    • Check the student’s comprehension regularly.

    • Ask the student to verbally summarize or paraphrase what was read.

    • Ask student to stop regularly to summarize text or respond to questions.

    • Highlight or teach key concepts prior to reading.

  • Reading Comprehension

  • Text Structure

  • Main Idea/Summarizing

    • Teach the student strategies for identifying the topic sentence. E.g. the one sentence that makes sense when it stands alone, always consider the first sentence, will always contains one or more of the 4 W’s/H, representing the ideas graphically.

    • Teach students a rule-based strategy for summarizing: delete trivial information, delete redundant information, substitute superordinate terms for lists, select or write a topic sentences.

    • Teach students to use the appropriate summary frame for the type of text: narrative, topic-restriction-illustration, definition, argumentation, problem/solution, conversation.

    • Teach the student to use the GIST Strategy for summarizing.

    • Teach the student the Hierarchical Summary Procedure: preview a few pages of text and generate an outline for the sections, read the text, write a main idea for each section, summarize the main ideas, review the summary, orally retell what they learned.

  • Listening Comprehension


  • Use graphic organizers to map stories.

  • Have the student read material prior to class or provide notes for the class.

  • Reduce the amount of print on a page.

  • Provide materials at the student’s independent reading level, particularly high-interest, low readability texts.

  • Allow student to access audio materials.

  • Have the student read progressively longer segments of reading material within the same topic.

  • Allow the student to re-read texts.

  • Scaffold a student’s notes.

  • Provide students with cues to focus their reading.

Additional Resources


Focus Area/Sample SMART Goal/Sample Tier 2 Intervention Plan:

Focus Area

Sample SMART Goal

Sample Tier 2 Intervention Plan

Comprehension: Listening

Student will improve the accuracy and completion of notes taken during class from ¼ on a rubric to ¾ on a rubric as measured by a note-taking rubric by June 2020.

Teach the student to use the TQLR strategy

Comprehension: Reading- Literal

Student will improve the accuracy of his response to literal comprehension questions from 45% to 80% as measured by a question set by November 2019.

Teach the student an easy method of annotating. With each reading, have the student skim and preview the text, read in small chunks, reread, and annotate. 

Comprehension: Reading- Inferential

Student will improve her use of questioning strategies to improve inferential comprehension from 69% to 80% as measured by a question set by November 2019. 

Teach the student to use the RIDER strategy

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