Conceptual Understanding

Instructional Strategies

  • Employ the use of the CRA model for operations: concrete, representational, abstract.
  • Use manipulatives or concrete examples when teaching new or challenging concepts.
  • Identify foundational concepts which the student has mastered and upon which you can build.
  • Ask the student to explain his/her thinking to better identify conceptual gaps or misunderstandings.
  • Identify common misunderstandings within the unit/concept being taught. Explicitly address these misunderstandings.


  • Limit the number of new concepts being introduced.

Additional Resources

Focus Area/Sample SMART Goal/Sample Tier 2 Intervention Plan:

Focus Area

Sample SMART Goal

Sample Tier 2 Intervention Plan

Conceptual Understanding

Student will improve the accuracy of subtraction requiring regrouping to at least the thousands from 46% accurate to 90% accurate as measured by a 10 problem mixed problem set. 

Teach the student the RENAME Strategy using the Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence (CRA).

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