Fluency

Instructional Strategies
  • General Strategies
    • Employ repeated reading practice.
    • Model reading with appropriate rate and expression.
    • Teach individual words, then phrases from a text before reading the whole text.
    • Record the student reading to allow for self-reflection.
  • Accuracy
    • Use Timed Repeated Oral Reading: The teacher times the student reading a passage at instructional level. Together they set a goal for rate at which the passage should be read. The student rereads until the goal is met. The teacher provides corrective feedback. The student can graph results each time to measure progress to the goal.
  • Rate
    • Use Timed Repeated Oral Reading: The teacher times the student reading a passage at instructional level. Together they set a goal for rate at which the passage should be read. The student rereads until the goal is met. The teacher provides corrective feedback. The student can graph results each time to measure progress to the goal.
    • Use incremental rehearsal to teach sight words.
  • Prosody
    • Use Phrase-Cued Reading (includes link to Phrase-Cued Text Generator)
    • Ensure students understand the function of punctuation and the ways in which an author strategically uses punctuation.
    • Model reading with appropriate phrasing, pace and expression. Teach the student to mark a passage for phrasing. Have the student read and reread the marked passage. Have the student read the same passage without markings.
Scaffolds
  • Allow student extra time to access text and to allow for multiple read-throughs.
  • Allow students to access some texts more appropriate to grade-level through audiobooks.
  • Provide students with content texts at their independent decoding level. 
 
Additional Resources
 
Focus Area/Sample SMART Goal/Sample Tier 2 Intervention Plan:
 
Focus Area
Sample SMART Goal
Sample Tier 2 Intervention Plan
Fluency: Rate
Student will increase her oral reading fluency of an expository text on her instructional level from 97 wcpm to 140 wcpm by the end of the 3rd quarter.
Use repeated reading strategy 5x10 minutes
Fluency: Accuracy
Student will improve the accuracy of his reading of a grade level text from 82% to 95% as measured by a running record by June 2020.
Fluency: Prosody
Student will improve the prosody of his reading from a rubric score of 1/4 to a rubric score of 3/4 on 4/5 grade level passages read aloud by June 2020.
  1. Model reading with expression for student and teach how to annotate for punctuation and phrasing
  2. Have student read passage and record reading
  3. Have student listen to reading and self-assess using Expression and Phrasing Rubric
  4. Have student reread and rerecord